Babur: The founder of the Mughal Empire

Babur: The founder of the Mughal Empire


This article is about Babur who founded the Mughal Empire in 1526.

Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire and the first emperor of the Mughal dynasty.

He was a descendent of Timur from his father’s side and that of changes khan from his mother’s side. Babur’s father was Umar seikh Mirza

Babur was born ns Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan)and was the eldest son of Umarseikh Mirza(1456-1494)who was the governor of Fergana (1469- 1494) and was a great-grandson of Timur.

After the sudden demise of Umarseikh Mirza, Babur sat on the throne of Fergana in 1494 at the tender age of twelve and faced immense rebellions from the nobles and his relatives.

He captured Samarkand but he lost Fergana soon after. When he tried to regain control of Fargana, he lost Samarkand. He tried again to get control over both the region i.e Samarkand and Faragana he got defeated by Muhammad Shybani Khan in 1501. He conquered Kabul and again conquered Samarkand but lost it a third time by Sheybani Khan. After consecutive defeat by Shaybni khan and having lost Samarkand for the third time by Ujbeg leader Ubeduullah Khan, Babur turned his attention to India.

India expedition: Babur remained emperor of Kabul until 1524-25 and made a plant to conquer Indian. He did struggle a lot and learned a lot of lessons during his struggle because of these struggles his acumen and craft increased tremendously. He learned a different kind of warfare during the struggle with fighter clans of the middle east. He learned Tulugma warfare craft from ujbeghs , use of guns from Iranians, horse riding from Turks, and warcraft from maggots and afghans.He took the help of two-person ustad Ali and Mustafa who were adept in the use of Cannon and gun powder.

First Battle of Panipat (21 April 1526)

Daulat khan (governor of Punjab) and Rana Sanga (ruler of Mewar) invited Babur to invade India.Babur attacked India on 21st April 1526 at Panipat in Haryana. Ibrahim Lodi commanded a huge army but they were not as disciplined as Babur’s army.

Babur used Tulugma and cannons and destroyed the army of Ibrahim Lodi, he took the help of two cannon master Ustad Ali and Mustafa, and completely annihilated the Lodi dynasty.

Battle of Khanwa (16 march 1527)

After the Panipat battle, the kawa battle was one of the most important battles fought by Babur. The reason for the battle was Babur’s decision to inhabit India. Rana Sanga had invited him with the intention that after plundering Indian Babur will get back to Kabul by innervating the power of Lodis and he will be able to rule India but when he knew the intention of Babur to stay in India, he became a rival of Babur. Rana Sanga gave shelter to Afghans who rebelled against Babur and that incited Babur to attack Rana Sanga. Babur defeated Rana Sanga in a fierce battle of Knawas on 16 March 1627.

Battle of Chanderi(29 January 1528)

The battle of chanderi was fought between Babur and Medni rai. The reason for battle was the importance of the areas of Bundelkhand and Malwa in Baubur’s expeditions. Babur defeated Madni rai and captured his daughters. Lots of Rajput women committed zoher in this battle.

Ghaghara battle (5 May 1529)

It was the last battle of Babur: After sustain defeat in the Panipat battle, Afghans were still strong and rebellious. They did not accept the reign of Babur. After khanwas battle Muhammad Lodi took refuge in Bihar . he seized chunar fort but when he heard that Babur is coming to chunar he lifted his army from chunar.

The emperor of Bengal who was a contemporary of Babur was helping Afghans in their revolts, Babur sent him a letter not to help Afghans but he did not reply to the letter. Babur decided to defeat the composite army of afghans and Bengal. On 5 May of 15 29 on the bank of the Ghaghara River, Babur defeated Afghans. After Ghaghara’s defeat, the Afghan power was totally destroyed. Mahmud khan lohani , Jalal Khan, sher khan sur, and Farid khan surrendered before Babur and Babur gave back their territories of Bihar.

Bengal rulers also allied with Babur and they promised not to give shelter to the enemies of either side.After the Ghaghara Battle power of Babur was established and he became absolute power in India.

Death of Babur

Babur’s tomb is situated in Kabul.Because of having been involved in lots of battles and remaining overburden with work he got ill and ultimately died on 26 December 1530. Initially, he was buried at Agara Arambag but later on his burial was done in Kabul according to his wishes. , his son humayn became successor of the throne after Babur.

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